Thursday, April 16, 2015

Space Domain Presents Challenges, Threats

By Jim Garamone
DoD News, Defense Media Activity

ABOARD A U.S. MILITARY AIRCRAFT, April 16, 2015 – In a candid and passionate speech, Deputy Defense Secretary Bob Work yesterday asked members of the space community to help the United States maintain its edge in the space domain in the 21st century.

Work spoke to more than 200 people from industry and government at the annual Space Symposium in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

The space domain is an increasingly important area for the U.S. military, the U.S. government and the American people, the deputy secretary said.

‘Space Architecture Faces Increasing Risks’

“Space architecture faces increasing threats and together we must think about those challenges,” Work said in his speech.

The world is seeing a reemergence of strategic competition, which was dormant since the end of the Cold War, a senior defense official said, speaking on background.

Since the end of the Cold War, space has been a relatively benign environment, but that has changed, the official said. China, for example, tested an anti-satellite capability in January 2007, destroying one of its weather satellites as it traveled more than 500 miles above the Earth, the official said.

Russia also has capabilities that could reach into space, and the United States can no longer assume that space will not be contested, the official added.

Work stressed that the U.S. national security space architecture is resilient, but it is facing increasing threats, and America must think about and act on those challenges.

‘Space is Deeply Enmeshed in Our Force Structure’

“Space is deeply enmeshed in our force structure and is central to our way of deterring, assuring and warfighting,” the deputy secretary said.

The U.S. military cannot be complacent and must emphasize space control as challenges arise, he said.

Officials said that to maintain dominance in space, the United States “must consider all space assets, both classified and unclassified, as part of single constellation. And if an adversary tries to deny us the capability, we must be able to respond in an integrated, coordinated fashion.”

The deputy secretary stated the ultimate goal for the United States is to maintain space capabilities, through all phases of conflict, regardless of actions to deny the ultimate high ground.

The symposium was a perfect place for such a candid talk, the official said on background. Those in the space industry know they are important to the nation, “but it was a call for them to think hard about the future of national security in space.”

Work asked the audience to look at how the nation thinks of deterrence and stability in this emerging world where space assets might be held at risk.

“It was a really positive and candid interchange,” the official said. “It was not your average bureaucratic speech. [Work] was very animated and passionate about this issue. Space, cyber, [and] nuclear are core issues for us as a nation.”

Protecting Space Assets

In an environment where space assets are at risk, “you want to be able to be sure that the [space] community is thinking about how to protect them and the services they provide,” the official said. Industry and government must work together on the design and architecture of space systems, the official said, to make them perform better and make them less vulnerable.

Defense Secretary Ash Carter and Work have consistently stimulated strategic thinking in the department, and this has cut across all domains, the official said, noting a common factor in the domains is the contribution from space.

“You can’t be serious about strategic thinking and about deterrence in the 21st century if you are not talking about space,” the official said.

Looking at the core elements of what DoD does to defend America, its allies and its interests, it is clear that space is increasingly important, according to the official.

“Strategy dictates that if something is getting more important to core objectives it has to place higher on your hierarchy of needs,” the official said. “It’s important that we manage it in the right way.”

FBI Forensic Spotlight: Next Generation Identification

The FBI's Next Generation Identification (NGI) System - now the agency's largest information technology system - expands upon and replaces the 15-year-old Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. FBI employees now have instant access to the latest in biometric technology. The system is making successful identifications more quickly and efficiently than before. The planning for NGI began in 2007, and three years later the rollout of the system began with improvements to the electronic identification process for incoming fingerprint submissions. Later additions included improved search techniques for latent and palm prints, as well as a feature important to officer safety - the capability to receive fingerprint queries from mobile devices. The most recent increments have focused on new initiatives in biometrics to further help identify criminals. The system is designed to add features and functions. To learn more, go to

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

45th Space Wing supports 6th SpaceX launch for ISS resupply mission

by 45th Space Wing
Public Affairs

4/14/2015 - CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, Fla. -- The 45th Space Wing supported Space Exploration Technologies' (SpaceX) successful launch of their Falcon 9 Dragon spacecraft headed to the International Space Station from Space Launch Complex 40 here April 14 at 4:10 p.m. EDT.

Today's mission is SpaceX's fourth Falcon 9 launch of the year, and the company's sixth operational re-supply mission to the space station.

A combined team of military, government civilians and contractors from across the 45th Space Wing provided support to the mission, including weather forecasts, launch and range operations, security, safety and public affairs. 

The Dragon spacecraft is filled with more than 4,300 pounds of supplies and payloads, including critical materials to directly support about 40 of the more than 250 science and research investigations that will occur during Expeditions 43 and 44, according to NASA.

Science payloads will study new ways to possibly counteract the microgravity-induced cell damage seen during spaceflight, the effects of microgravity on the most common cells in bones, gather new insight that could lead to treatments for osteoporosis and muscle wasting conditions, continue studies into astronaut vision changes and test a new material that could one day be used as a synthetic muscle for robotics explorers of the future.

After five weeks at the space station, the spacecraft will return to earth with more than 3,000 pounds of cargo, including crew supplies, hardware and computer resources, science experiments, space station hardware - and then splash down in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California.

Maj. Gen. (Sel.) Nina Armagno, 45th Space Wing commander, who also served as the Launch Decision Authority for this mission, lauded the entire team effort.

"One mission at a time - totally focused on our disciplined and safe process execution to ensure 100 percent mission success - is how we do things here on the Eastern Range," said Armagno.

"As always, all the credit goes to Team Patrick-Cape, NASA, SpaceX, and all the other mission partners who came together to make this mission happen," she said. "You continue to impress me and to do yourself proud."

The next launch on the Eastern Range Manifest is the Falcon 9 Thales mission, currently slated for liftoff at 6:14 p.m. EDT, April 24, from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

New DoD Cyber Strategy Nears Release, Official Says

By Army Sgt. 1st Class Tyrone C. Marshall Jr.
DoD News, Defense Media Activity

WASHINGTON, April 14, 2015 – The Defense Department will release a new cyber strategy next week to guide the way ahead for cyber in the foreseeable future, a senior Pentagon official told Congress today.

Testifying before the Senate Armed Services Committee’s emerging threats and capabilities subcommittee, Eric Rosenbach explained how DoD plans to continue improvement to America’s cybersecurity posture. Rosenbach is the assistant secretary of defense for homeland defense and global security.

“To show that we’re thinking very clearly about this,” he said, “next week we’ll release a new strategy for the department that will guide the way forward for the next several years in cyber.”

Defense Secretary Ash Carter has driven this effort, he added.

DoD Cyber Mission

Rosenbach said defending DoD’s networks is the department’s most important cyber mission. “I know that may be surprising when you think about the Department of Defense,” he said. “We’re very network-reliant and network-centric.” DoD has the largest enterprise network in the world, he added, and all military operations depend on that network.

Secondly, Rosenbach said, the Defense Department needs to defend the nation against significant cyberattacks. “This is a small part of all the cyberattacks against the U.S. -- not a denial-of-service attack, unless it would cross the threshold of armed attack for most instances,” he said.

“The Department of Defense is not here to defend against all cyberattacks -- only that top 2 percent -- the most serious,” Rosenbach added.

Finally, he said, the department wants to provide full-spectrum cyber options to the president or the defense secretary in cases that would be advantageous to national interests.

DoD Role in U.S. Cybersecurity

Rosenbach said in light of the evolving nature of the threat, DoD is committed to a comprehensive, whole-of-government cyber strategy to deter attacks.

“This strategy depends on the totality of U.S. actions, to include declaratory policy, overall defensive posture, effective response procedures, indication and warning capabilities, and the resilience of U.S. networks and systems,” he said. Within this, Rosenbach said, the department has three specific roles within the U.S. government from a deterrent perspective.

“First, we need to develop capabilities to deny a potential attack from achieving its desired effect,” he said. “Second, the U.S. must increase the cost of executing a cyberattack. In this regard, DoD must be able to provide the president with options to respond to cyberattacks on the U.S., if required, through cyber and other means.”

Rosenbach also emphasized that potential responses to cyberattacks are considered not only from a purely cyber perspective, but also in a way that encapsulates foreign policy tools and military options.

Finally, he said, it’s important to ensure resilience so the cyber infrastructure can bounce back from an attack.

“This, when it comes down to it, is pure cost benefit-type analysis to make sure the cost is much higher than the benefit to the adversaries who want to attack us,” Rosenbach said.

Investing in Capabilities

To bolster its deterrence strategy, Rosenbach said, DoD has made a conscious decision to invest in capabilities and the cyber mission force.

“We have built robust intelligence,” he said. “I do think that it’s an important part of it, although not the core part, and we know that we need to reduce the anonymity of cyberspace so that adversaries who attack us don’t think they can get away with it.

“These attribution capabilities have increased significantly in recent years,” he continued, “and we continue to work closely with intelligence and law enforcement to improve this.”

To carry out these missions, the Defense Department is building a cyber mission force composed of 133 teams, Rosenbach said.

“There’s an important role for the National Guard and the reserve,” Rosenbach said. “We want to capitalize on the expertise that folks who are in the private sector, but still want to serve their country, have.”

Building a cadre of cyber experts is very important to the defense secretary, Rosenbach told the panel. Since taking office, he said, one of Carter’s top priorities has been ensuring DoD has new “tunnels” for talent to enter the department’s cyber community.

Building Partnerships

Building strong partnerships with the private sector -- as well as with other government agencies, allies and partners – also is important, Rosenbach told the senators.

“The geography of the Internet itself means we can’t do this alone,” he said. “We’ve invested a lot of time -- even recently -- in Asia, the [Persian] Gulf and other places in the Middle East, and of course, [with] our traditional allies … and in NATO, in this area.”

Rosenbach also emphasized the important role Congress plays in passing legislation that improves the standard of cybersecurity.